The Role of Susa in History



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The Role of Susa in History









History of Susa city written by Hadi Mehrabi (Persian) and Reza Tamimi (English)

Susa from old days was one of the history cities that some famous civilizations could take rise from this history place and still there are indelible appearances from them in history.


In first of living human on ground that him could by invention write and melt iron got more development in  life, the land of Mesopotamia had special situation in that time. There were three known civilizations close each other in that zone such as, Ashur, Elamite and Babylon. The capital of Elamite (Susa city) had excellent position. In fact Elam is Ashurian pronunciation of the land of Hal tam Ti in Elam Ian language and Hal tam Ti is to mean God land. The cause of development of Elam and its capital mentioned in under:

1 Cause of genetic based on innate intellect.

2 Cause of climate (convenient weather) and convenient Khuzestan plain for agriculture and keeping domestic animals.

3 cause of competition with their vicinity states specially Mesopotamia's civilizations.

Thus Elamites could for thousand years in their capital Susa do useful things for their progress and human civilization. As the development of write, architecture, melt iron, mirror and art of sculpture altogether own to Elamite people. The Extent of Elam land was so much, as sometimes they made obedient all of big civilizations around themselves and their territory could extend to Egypt. Moreover In past era Susa was capital of a religious city it was a religious focus for all people too. The thing founded in Susa, Haft Tapeh, Ziggurat and Izeh showed many facts about the approach of Elamite's bio and look. But still there are many unclear facts about them.

Through remained ancient things from Susa in Elam age, the God sculptures have special place. One of these sculptures there is in leour museum in France and it has gold kind and this sculpture is very beauty and astonishing. Susa known goblet that some of its versions founded in ancient inventions and a version of that keeping in louver museum is really antique and symbolic. Extravaganza kind used on goblet's images remembers people to old art styles like Cubism. Ziggurat temple and ancient things founded in ziggurat showed high quality art of Elam civilization. The dig of Roman    Girshman and his inquires in first past century showed; Elamite people used natural elements like mirror, tar, metals and glaze in building. Using big wheels and creating parallel nicks on ground like rail were other incredible Elamite's crafts. Social communications and the approaches making law also in Elam periods were very remarkable and this kind of their culture could be good grounds for history researchers.


After fall Elamites, Susa for some times lost its credit and refulgence but with appearance the biggest Empire of history Hakhamaneshi and because of that Hakhamaneshi has liked get communication with Elamites, Susa got its credit and  altitude again. In this time Susa known as the most important capital of Hakhamaneshi for 400 years in world. Hakhamaneshi kings made many majestic buildings in Susa and when the political delegate other countries wanted to meet king of Hakhamaneshi, they had taken him in Susa. Relationship and commitment different nationals in making the buildings of Susa in founded ancient things are obvious. Darush in an inscription in Susa said: I cloud by help of Ahura Mazda structured the palace of Susa.

Susa pregnant plains for long times saw the movement of Hakhamaneshi soldiers for occupy Greek and Egypt and world affected from these events that happened in Susa. And Susa that past several thousands years from its lifetime arrived to the highest political position. But with invasion Alexander to Iran and Arizona's breakage in battle with Grecian and inter them to Susa, this city never could return to primeval power and credit. Said, Alexander ordered in Susa, till his headers choice Iranian wellborn girls to marriage. Alexander's soldiers before departure him to central Iran plateau demolished many of majestic buildings and Susa people went to sad for this event.

Seleucid and Parthian

After appearance Seleucid state, Susa as a center market was controlled about like an independent district. Almost this process was end of Seleucid dominion. Inscriptions are paucity Written things founded in Susa.  Seleucid for extending their business with other regions started to make canal Karoon River. And thus condiment and other goods could by sea sold in Susa market from Indian and Saudi. The coin founded in Susa showed many facts about parthian and Seleucid in their obedience years. In parthian period Susa affected from tensions between Rom and Iran, and Grecian with Elamite and Jewish vestiges and other habitant nationals in Susa were a part of parthian vast country.


In Sasani course Susa with shush tar and Gondi shapour were as centrals economics producing and exports silk to whole points world. In first of Sasani period and end of shapour2 kingdom, raised rebellion and disobedience in Susa by invasion of Shpour and Susa changed to the ruin place that still there are effects of that in Susa. After this event Shapour changed name of Susa city to "Iran khovareh shapour" to mean the Glory of Iran and in north of Susa city structured Kar khadi ladan city and later name of this city changed to "Iran asane kar koda" to mean Koda fetched peace to Iran. In this time after breakage of Rom from Iran and transfer Romaine slavers to north Khuzestan this district was under influence of their presence. By inter Christianity, Susa lied to a part of bishopric regions. With appearance Manni and his customs, affected whole East and West regions from his customs and finally Manni in Bahram1 time and with pressure of priests he killed in "Bilabad prison" (Gondi shapour) from Susa environs. 

After Islam

Susa occupied by Muslims in 17th century (lunar year). In Islamic period also Susa was one of the populous and development cities for some times. When the center of Khuzestan transferred to Ahwaz, Susa lost its importance.

Susa in the first of the Islamic centuries was advanced and it was a big center for Khuzestan. In that time Susa had several cities, villages and suburbs and also in this city there were many majestic markets and the mosque with globular columns in that.

After Islam, Susa known at looks producing of curd silk textiles, bergamot, pomegranate and sugarcane.

خورشيد آبی Design : Hadi Mehrabi                                                            Copyright 2005 bluesun